Heart Model
Cardiovascular Pharmacology Concepts Richard E. Klabunde, PhD

Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts 3e textbook cover Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts, 3rd edition textbook, Published by Wolters Kluwer (2021)

CNormal and Abnormal Blood Pressure, Physiology, Pathophysiology and Treatment book cover Normal and Abnormal Blood Pressure, published by Richard E. Klabunde (2013)

Electrolyte Supplements (Magnesium and Potassium)

Magnesium is an important ion in many enzymatic reactions, including cardiac Na+-K+-ATPase. Hypomagnesemia can inhibit this vital ion transport system and lead to cellular depolarization.

Potassium ion plays an essential role in membrane potentials, particularly in the resting membrane potential. It is also essential in the repolarization phase of cardiac pacemaker and non-pacemaker action potentials (phase 3).

Therefore, hypomagnesemia (serum concentration <1.5 mg/dL) and hypokalemia (serum concentration <3.5 mg/dL; severe hypokalemia, <2.5 mg/dL) can precipitate cardiac arrhythmias, which include ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, premature ventricular complexes, supraventricular tachycardias (e.g., Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome), atrial tachycardias, including flutter and fibrillation, and arrhythmias associated with digitalis toxicity.

For treating hypomagnesemia-associated arrhythmias, magnesium sulfate may be administered intravenously. Oral magnesium supplementation can be administered using magnesium gluconate, oxide, or hydroxide salts. Potassium chloride may be administered intravenously or orally.


Revised 11/30/2023

Be sure to visit our sister site, CVPhysiology.com.

Why the Ads? CVpharmacology.com is very popular with medical school students, physicians, educators, and others. We use the revenue from advertisements to offset the cost of hosting and maintaining this website. Having ads allows us to keep this website free for everyone.

Amazon Badge
Shop for Medical Books & Textbooks on Amazon